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Journal Articles IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution Year : 2014

Directional relays without voltage sensors for distribution networks

Marc Petit
Trung Dung Le


In this study, algorithms for directional relays using only current measurements are presented. Developed for radial distribution networks, these algorithms will determine fault direction based on ratios between variations of sequence currents during and before faults: ΔI 2/ΔI 0 ratio for line-to-ground faults and the ΔI 2/ΔI 1 ratio for line-to-line faults. The ratios are used as input of a support vector machine classifier, which was trained beforehand thanks to simulation tools. The classifier classifies ratios into two categories, according to the fault location: upstream or downstream towards the relay. Test results from simulations show good performances of the algorithms in most cases, with the presence of different distributed generation technologies. Moreover, impact of certain factors on algorithms, such as measurement errors, high-impedance faults or network reconfiguration, is studied. Finally, the implementation of algorithms is also discussed.


Electric power

Dates and versions

hal-01083444 , version 1 (17-11-2014)



Marc Petit, Trung Dung Le. Directional relays without voltage sensors for distribution networks. IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 2014, 8 (12), p2074-2082. ⟨10.1049/iet-gtd.2014.0308⟩. ⟨hal-01083444⟩
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